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List of Filesystems

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General InformationEdit

Creator Introduced in Original operating system
FAT12 Microsoft 1980 QDOS
FAT16 Microsoft 1983 MS-DOS version 2
FAT32 Microsoft 1997? Windows 95Template:fn
HPFS IBM & Microsoft 1988 OS/2
NTFS Microsoft, Gary Kimura, Tom Miller 1993? Windows NT
HFS+ Apple 1998 Mac OS
FFS Kirk McKusick 1983 4.2BSD
UFS1 Kirk McKusick 1994 4.4BSD
UFS2 Kirk McKusick 2002 FreeBSD 5.0
Mac OS X UFS Apple (from UFS1) 2001 Mac OS X
Ext2 Rémy Card 1993 Linux
Ext3 Stephen Tweedie 1999 Linux
ReiserFS V3 Namesys 2001 Linux
Reiser4 Namesys 2005 Linux
XFS SGI 1994 IRIX
JFS IBM  ? AIXTemplate:fn
Be File System Be Inc., D. Giampaolo, C. Meurillon 1996? BeOS
NSS Novell 1998 Netware 5
NWFS Novell 1985 Netware 286
ODS5 DEC  ? VMS
VxFS VERITAS 1991 SVR4.0
ZFS Sun 2004 Solaris 10
Creator Introduced in Original operating system


LimitsEdit

Maximum filename length Allowable characters in directory entriesTemplate:fn Maximum pathname length Maximum file size Maximum volume size Template:fn
FAT12 255 bytes Template:fn Any Unicode except NUL Template:fn Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB 1MiB to 512MiB
FAT16 255 bytes Template:fn Any Unicode except NUL Template:fn Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB 16MiB to 8GiB
FAT32 255 bytes Template:fn Any Unicode except NUL Template:fn Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB 8GiB to 2TiB Template:fn
HPFS 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB 2TiBTemplate:fn
NTFS 255 bytes Any Unicode except NUL No limit defined Template:fn 16EB 16EB
HFS+ 255 charactersTemplate:fn Any Unicode except : Template:fn Template:fn  ? 8EB  ?
FFS 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB 256TiB
UFS1 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB to 256TiB 256TiB
UFS2 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 512GiB to 32PiB 1YiB
Mac OS X UFS  ? Any byte except NUL Template:fn  ?  ?  ?
Ext2 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 16GiB to 2TiBTemplate:fn 2TB to 32TB
Ext3 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 16GiB to 2TiBTemplate:fn 2TB to 32TB
ReiserFS V3 4032 bytes/255 characters Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 8TBTemplate:fn 16TB
Reiser4  ?  ? No limit defined Template:fn  ?  ?
XFS 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 9EBTemplate:fn 9EBTemplate:fn
JFS 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 8EB 512TB to 4PB
Be File System 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 12288 bytes to 260GiBTemplate:fn 256PiB to 2EiB
NSS  ? Depends on namespace used Template:fn Only limited by client 8TiB 8TiB
NWFS  ?  ? No limit defined Template:fn 4GiB 1TiB
ODS5 236 bytesTemplate:fn  ? 4096 bytesTemplate:fn 1TB 1TB
VxFS 255 bytes Any byte except NUL Template:fn No limit defined Template:fn 16EB  ?
ZFS  ?  ?  ? 1YiBTemplate:fn 16EiBTemplate:fn
Maximum filename length Allowable characters in directory entriesTemplate:fn Maximum pathname length Maximum file size Maximum volume size Template:fn


FeaturesEdit

Rich File type metadata Stores file owner POSIX file permissions Creation timestamps Last access/read timestamps Last entry change timestamps Last archive timestamps Access control lists Security/MAC labels Hard links Soft links Alternate data stream / resource fork
FAT12 Yes Template:fn No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No
FAT16 Yes Template:fn No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No
FAT32 Yes Template:fn No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No
HPFS Yes YesTemplate:fn No Yes Yes No No No  ? No No No
NTFS Yes Yes NoTemplate:fn Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes YesTemplate:fn Yes
HFS+ Partial Yes Yes Yes Yes  ?  ? Yes  ? Yes Yes Yes
FFS No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
UFS1 No Template:fn Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Template:fn No Template:fn Yes Yes No
UFS2 Yes Template:fn Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Template:fn No Template:fn Yes Yes No
Mac OS X UFS Partial Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
Ext2 Yes Template:fn Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes No
Ext3 Yes Template:fn Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes No
ReiserFS V3 Yes Template:fn Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes No
Reiser4 No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No  ? Yes Yes Not yet
XFS Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes No
JFS Yes Template:fn Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes No
Be File System Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No  ? Yes Yes No
NSS Yes Template:fn Yes Yes YesTemplate:fn YesTemplate:fn Yes YesTemplate:fn Yes  ? Yes Yes YesTemplate:fn
NWFS Yes Template:fn Yes  ? YesTemplate:fn YesTemplate:fn Yes YesTemplate:fn Yes  ?  ?  ? YesTemplate:fn
ODS5 Yes Template:fn Yes Yes  ?  ?  ?  ? Yes  ? Yes YesTemplate:fn No
VxFS Yes Template:fn Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes Yes
ZFS  ?  ? Yes No Yes Yes No Yes  ? Yes Yes  ?
Rich File type metadata Stores file owner POSIX file permissions Creation timestamps Last access/read timestamps Last entry change timestamps Last archive timestamps Access control lists Security/MAC labels Hard links Soft links Alternate data stream / resource fork


JournalingEdit

Block journaling Meta-data only journaling Case-sensitive Case-preserving File Change Log
FAT12 No No No No No
FAT16 No No No No No
FAT32 No No No No No
HPFS No No No Yes No
NTFS PartialTemplate:fn Yes YesTemplate:fn Yes Yes
HFS+ No  ? YesTemplate:fn Yes No
FFS No No Yes Yes No
UFS1 No No Yes Yes No
UFS2 No No Yes Yes No
Mac OS X UFS No No Yes Yes No
Ext2 No No Yes Yes No
Ext3 Yes Yes Template:fn Yes Yes No
ReiserFS V3 No Yes Yes Yes No
Reiser4  ? Yes Yes Yes No
XFS No Yes Yes Template:fn Yes Yes
JFS  ? Yes YesTemplate:fn Yes No
Be File System No Yes Yes Yes  ?
NSS  ? Yes YesTemplate:fn YesTemplate:fn YesTemplate:fn
NWFS No No YesTemplate:fn YesTemplate:fn YesTemplate:fn
ODS5 No Yes No Yes Yes
VxFS Yes No Yes Yes Yes
ZFS No  ? Yes Yes No
Block journaling Meta-data only journaling Case-sensitive Case-preserving File Change Log


Features that help to prevent fragmentationEdit

Delayed allocation Extents Variable block size Template:fn
FAT12 No No No
FAT16 No No No
FAT32 No No No
HPFS No Yes  ?
NTFS No  ?  ?
HFS+ No No  ?
FFS No No No
UFS1 No No No
UFS2 No No Yes
Mac OS X UFS No No No
Ext2 No No No
Ext3 No No  ?
ReiserFS V3 No No  ?
Reiser4 No Yes Template:fn  ?
XFS Yes Yes Template:fn  ?
JFS No  ?  ?
Be File System No No  ?
NSS No No  ?
NWFS No No  ?
ODS5 No No  ?
VxFS No Yes No
ZFS No  ?  ?
Delayed allocation Extents Variable block size Template:fn


NotesEdit

  • Template:fnb HFS, an older version of HFS+, only supported 31 character filenames; some older applications don't work well with names longer than this.
  • Template:fnb HFS+ mandates support for an escape sequence to allow arbitrary Unicode. Users of older software might see the escape sequences instead of the desired characters.
  • Template:fnb Varies wildly according to block size and fragmentation of block allocation groups.
  • Template:fnb For filesystems that have variable allocation unit (block/cluster) sizes, a range of size are given, indicating the maximum volume sizes for the minimum and the maximum possible allocation unit sizes of the filesystem (e.g. 512 bytes and 128KiB for FAT — which is the cluster size range allowed by the on-disc data structures, although some Installable File System drivers and operating systems do not support cluster sizes larger than 32KiB).
  • Template:fnb NTFS access control lists can express essentially any access policy possible using simple POSIX file permissions, but use of a POSIX-like interface is not supported without an add-on such as Services for UNIX or Cygwin.
  • Template:fnb The file change logs, last entry change timestamps, and other filesystem metadata, are all part of the extensive suite of auditing capabilities built into NDS/eDirectory called NSure Audit. (Filesystem Events tracked by NSure)
  • Template:fnb While FAT32 partitions this large work fine once created, some software won't allow creation of FAT32 partitions larger than 32GB. This includes, notoriously, the Windows XP installation program.
  • Template:fnb ReiserFS has a theoretical maximum file size of 1EB, but "page cache limits this to 8 Ti on architectures with 32-bit int"[1]
  • Template:fnb XFS has a limitation under Linux 2.4 of 64 TB file size and 2 TB file system size. This limitation is not present under IRIX.
  • Template:fnb Microsoft first introduced FAT32 in Windows 95 OSR2 (OEM Service Release 2) and then later in Windows 98.
  • Template:fnb JFS originated on AIX and was completely rewritten for OS/2. The Linux filesystem was based on the OS/2 version.
  • Template:fnb The on-disc structures have no inherent limit. Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may impose limits of their own, however. MS-DOS does not support full pathnames longer than 260 bytes for FAT12 and FAT16. Windows NT does not support full pathnames longer than 32767 bytes for NTFS.
  • Template:fnb This is the limit of the on-disc structures. The HPFS Installable File System driver for OS/2 uses the top 5 bits of the volume sector number for its own use, limiting the volume size that it can handle to 64GiB.
  • Template:fnb The f-node contains a field for a user identifier. This is not used except by OS/2 Warp Server, however.
  • Template:fnb Maximum combined filename / filetype length is 236 bytes; each component has an individual maximum length of 255 byes.
  • Template:fnb Maximum pathname length is 4096 bytes, but quoted limits on individual components add up to 1664 bytes.
  • Template:fnb Record Management Services (RMS) attributes include record type and size, among many others.
  • Template:fnb These are referred to as 'aliases'.
  • Template:fnb Novell calls this feature "multiple data streams". Published specifications say that NWFS allows for 16 attributes and 10 data streams, and NSS allows for unlimited quantities of both.
  • Template:fnb Case-sensitivity/Preservation depends on client. Windows, DOS, and OS/2 clients don't see/keep case differences, whereas clients accessing via NFS or AFP may.
  • Template:fnb Published specs say that the 128-bit filesystem provides for up to 264 bytes to describe the file system, filesize, directory entries, etc, with a theoretical maximum of 2128 bytes total to describe all storage on such a machine.
  • Template:fnb Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support extended attributes on FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32. The OS/2 and Windows NT filesystem drivers for FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32 support extended attributes (using a "EA DATA. SF" pseudo-file to reserve the clusters allocated to them). Other filesystem drivers for other operating systems do not.
  • Template:fnb Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support extended attributes on these filesystem types. Linux kernels prior to 2.6.x either require patching to support extended attributes or do not support extended attributes at all.
  • Template:fnb On FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32 files have both long and short names. These are the restrictions upon long names. Short names are exactly 11 8-bit characters long (being space padded, in both the basename and extension parts); may not contain either NUL or character 229, both of which have special meaning (marking the end of the directory or a deleted entry, respectively); and in normal operation do not contain lowercase letters. Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support long names. Without a third-party driver, MS-DOS (including Windows 95 and Windows 98 booted into DOS-only mode) only provides access to short names. The OS/2 filesystem drivers for FAT12 and FAT16 only provide access to short names.
  • Template:fnb These are the restrictions imposed by the on-disc directory entry structures themselves. Particular Installable File System drivers may place restrictions of their own on file and directory names; and particular and operating systems may also place restrictions of their own, across all filesystems. MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, and OS/2 disallow the characters \ / : ? * " > < | and NUL in file and directory names across all filesystems. Unices and Linux disallow the characters / and NUL in file and directory names across all filesystems.
  • Template:fnb In these filesystems the directory entries named "." and ".." have special status. Directory entries with these names are not prohibited, and indeed exist as normal directory entries in the on-disc data structures. However, they are mandatory directory entries, with mandatory values, that are automatically created in each directory when it is created; and directories without them are considered corrupt.
  • Template:fnb The "." and ".." directory entries in HPFS that are seen by applications programs are a partial fiction created by the Installable File System drivers. The on-disc data structure for a directory does not contain entries by those names, but instead contains a special "start" entry. Whilst on-disc directory entries by those names are not physically prohibited, they cannot be created in normal operation, and a directory containing such entries is corrupt.
  • Template:fnb NSS allows files to have multiple names, in separate namespaces.
  • Template:fnb Some file and directory metadata is stored on the Netware server irrespective of whether Directory Services is installed or not, like date/time of creation, file size, purge status, etc; and some file and directory metadata is stored in NDS/eDirectory, like file/object permissions, ownership, etc.
  • Template:fnb Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support case sensitivity for JFS. OS/2 does not, and Linux has a mount option for disabling case sensitivity.
  • Template:fnb The local time, timezone/UTC offset, and date are derived from the time settings of the reference/single timesync source in the NDS tree.
  • Template:fnb Some operating systems implemented extended attributes as a layer over UFS1 with a parallel backing file (e.g., FreeBSD 4.x).
  • Template:fnb Access-control lists and MAC labels available as an operating-system feature layered on top of extended attributes.
  • Template:fnb NTFS 5.0 and higher can create junctions, which allow entire directories (but not individual files) to be mapped to elsewhere in the directory tree of a locally managed drive. These are implemented through reparse points, which allow the normal process of filename resolution to be extended in a flexible manner.
  • Template:fnb Turned off by default.
  • Template:fnb While NTFS itself supports case sensitivity, the Windows standard file system drivers cannot create files whose names differ only by case, for compatibility reasons.
  • Template:fnb NTFS stores everything, even the file data, as meta-data, so its log is closer to block journaling.
  • Template:fnb Data journaling is possible.
  • Template:fnb In "extents" mode.
  • Template:fnb Only in the realtime chunk of the XFS file system.
  • Template:fnb Optionally no on IRIX.
  • Template:fnb Variable block size refers to systems which support different block sizes on a per-file basis. (This is similar to extents but a slightly different implementational choice.) The current implementation in UFS2 is read-only.


Filesystem List
Filesystems: FAT | FATX | FAT12 | FAT16 | FATX16 | FAT32 | FATX32 | NTFS | JFS | Ext | Ext2 | Ext3 | HPFS | ReiserFS | Reiser4 | HFS+ | FFS | UFS1 | UFS2 | UFSMacOSX | XFS | OFS | BFS | BeFS | OpenBFS | NSS | NWFS | ODS5 | VxFS | ZFS | MFS | IFS | AFS | TVFS | MinixFS | SkyFS | AtheOSFS | ArlaFS | CDFS | UDF | CFS | DFS | OpenAFS | GFS | DTFS | CODA | UMSDOS | OldBeFS | RFS | EFS

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