Low-level widget toolkitsEdit
Integrated in the operating systemEdit
- Mac OS X uses Cocoa. Mac OS9 and Mac OS X use Carbon for 32 bit applications.
- The Windows API used in Microsoft Windows.
As a separate layer on top of the operating systemEdit
- The X Window System contains primitive building blocks, called Xt or "Intrinsics", but they are used only by Motif and Xaw. Most other toolkits, such as GTK+ or Qt, bypass them and use Xlib.
- The Amiga OS Intuition was formerly present in the Amiga Kickstart ROM and integrated itself with a medium-high level widget library which invoked the Workbench Amiga native GUI. Since Amiga OS 2.0, Intuition.library became disk based and object oriented. Also Workbench.library and Icon.library became disk based, and could be replaced with similar third-party solutions.
High-level widget toolkits Edit
- BOOPSI (Basic Object Oriented Programming System for Intuition) was introduced with OS 2.0 and enhanced Intuition with a system of classes in which every class represents a single widget or describes an interface event. This led to an evolution in which third-party developers each realised their own personal systems of classes.
- Magic User Interface (MUI): system of Amiga Widget Classes.
- Zune (GUI toolkit) is an object-oriented GUI toolkit which is part of the AROS project and nearly an Open Source clone, at both an API and look and feel level, of Magic User Interface.
- ClassAct: another system of Amiga Widget Classes which evolved in AmigaOS 3.9 and 4.0 into Reaction based GUIs.
- ReAction: Evolution of the ClassACT system.
- StormWIZARD: BOOPSI-based, developed by Thomas Mittelsdorf
- Feelin: XML-based, developed by Olivier Laviale
- Cygnix AmigaOS version of the X11 reduced engine Cygwin
- ScalOS replacement for AmigaOS Workbench, has its own system of Widgets
- GTK MUI wrapper which wraps GTK system of widgets with existing AmigaOS MUI toolkit for AROS and MorphOS
- Cairo for AmigaOS 4.0
- Cocoa - used in Mac OS X (see also Aqua).
- MacApp Macintosh framework.
- MacZoop Macintosh C++ framework.
- PowerPlant Macintosh framework.
- The Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC), used by most developers on the Microsoft Windows platform.
- The Windows Template Library (WTL), a template-based extension to ATL and a replacement of MFC
- SmartWin++, an MFC/WTL replacement using templates based on STL and Boost
- The Object Windows Library, Borland's alternative to MFC.
- The Visual Component Library (VCL) is Borland's toolkit used in its C++ Builder and Delphi products.
- Windows Forms is .NET's set of classes that handle GUI controls. In the cross-platform Mono implementation, it is an independent toolkit, implemented entirely in managed code (not wrapping the Windows API, which doesn't exist on other platforms) .
- The Windows Presentation Foundation is the graphical subsystem of the .NET Framework 3.0. User interfaces can be created in WPF using any of the CLR languages (e.g. C#) or with the XML based language XAML. Microsoft Expression Blend is a visual GUI builder for WPF.
- The Key Objects Library (KOL) is a set of objects to develop small 32-bit Windows GUI applications (start under 30Kb) using Delphi (but without VCL) or Free Pascal. It is distributed free of charge, with source code. There is also a version of KOL for Windows CE.
Note that the X Window system was originally primarily for Unix-like operating systems, but it now runs on Microsoft Windows as well using, for example, Cygwin, so some or all of these toolkits can also be used under Windows.
- InterViews, a toolkit written in C++.
- IRIS ViewKit by Silicon Graphics (and its free implementation Hungry ViewKit) is a C++ class library for developing Motif applications.
- JX Application Framework
- Lesstif, an open source (LGPL) version of Motif.
- Motif used in the Common Desktop Environment.
- Xaw, the Project Athena widget set for the X Window System.
- GLUI is a GLUT-based C++ user interface library which provides controls such as buttons, checkboxes, radio buttons, and spinners to OpenGL applications.
- Clutter is an open source software library for creating fast, visually rich and animated graphical user interfaces.
- NUI is based on 3D rendered dynamic layouts. Build your visual interface as a composition of widgets and behaviors.
- Adobe Flash allows creating widgets running in most web browsers and in several mobile phones.
- Adobe Flex provides high level widgets for building web user interfaces. Flash widgets can be used in Flex.
- Flash and Flex widgets will run without a browser in the Adobe AIR runtime environment.
- The Free Software reimplementation of Flash, GNU Gnash, which is under development, can also run Flash widgets outside of a browser.
- Independent software vendors propose to embed the flash application into an executable: MDM Zinc, mProjector and more. Those solutions are cross-platform (depending on the vendors solution).
- GladeXML with GTK+
- XAML with Silverlight
- XML User Interface A Java and XML toolkit for building Rich Internet Applications.
- AJAX Calendar.NET developer control
- Backbase AJAX
- Cappuccino (application development framework)
- Dojo Toolkit
- TIBCO General Interface, is a rich AJAX GUI components that include vector charts and is now also available through an open source BSD license.
- Ample SDK
- Cooee, is a Java-based Web UI Framework. Part of the Karora Open Source Project.
- IT Mill Toolkit
- Qooxdoo Could be understood as Qt for the Web
- Swing (Java)
- ZK (framework)
- Google Web Toolkit
- FBML － Facebook Markup Language
- Web Application Markup Language
- Yahoo! UI Library, or simply YUI
- Ext JS
- airWRX is an application framework that runs from a USB flash drive, and turns its PC host and other nearby PCs into a multi-screen, web-like digital workspace.
- SPARK (software) is an application framework built upon SVG.
- The Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) is Sun Microsystems' original widget toolkit for Java applications. It typically uses another toolkit on each platform on which it runs.
- Swing is a richer widget toolkit supported since J2SE 1.2 as a replacement for AWT widgets. Swing is a lightweight toolkit, meaning it does not rely on native widgets.
- The Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) is a native widget toolkit for Java that was developed as part of the Eclipse project. SWT uses a standard toolkit for the running platform (such as the Windows API or GTK+) underneath.
- Qt Jambi, the official Java binding to Qt from Trolltech. The commercial support and development has stopped
- Agar is a set of cross-platform graphics libraries which includes a comprehensive GUI toolkit. Agar supports OpenGL rendering as well as simple frame buffer displays with SDL.
- CEGUI, open source (MIT License), configurable GUI designed for game development.
- CLX (Component Library for Cross-platform), used with Borland's Delphi, C++ Builder, and Kylix, for producing cross-platform applications. It is based on Qt, wrapped in such a way that its programming interface is similar to that of the VCL toolkit.
- dlib C++ Library, for creating simple cross-platform graphical applications.
- EWL Enlightened Widget Library is a high-level toolkit primarily developed to work on the Enlightenment window manager (BSD license).
- FLTK, open source (LGPL), cross-platform toolkit designed to be small and fast.
- FOX toolkit, open source (LGPL), cross-platform toolkit.
- GLUI, a very small toolkit written with the GLUT library.
- GTK+, open source (LGPL), primarily for the X Window System, ported to and emulated under other platforms; used in the GNOME, Rox, LXDE and XFCE desktop environments. The Windows port has support for native widgets.
- gtkmm, C++ version of GTK+
- IUP, open source (MIT), a minimalist GUI toolkit in ANSI C for MS Windows, UNIX and Linux.
- Juce provides GUI and widget set with the same look and feel in Microsoft Windows, X Window Systems, and Mac OS X
- Lgi (software) (LGPL), Ports for Windows, Cygwin, Linux (Xlib), BeOS and Mac OS X (in progress). Compiles with VC++ 6 and 7, gcc 3 & 4 and XCode 1.5. Cross platform and native widgets (including stand alone HTML engine), graphical dialog designer, translatable Unicode applications, IDE, and small binaries.
- Qt, open source (GPL, LGPL) available under Unix and Linux (with X Window), MS Windows, Mac OS X, embedded Linux, Windows CE systems and Symbian S60; also available in commercial versions under these platforms; used in KDE.
- Quinta, a lightweight application framework with GUI widgets (BSD license)
- Tk, a widget set accessed from Tcl and other high-level script languages (interfaced in Python as Tkinter).
- TnFOX, open source (LGPL), a portability toolkit.
- Ultimate++ is a free Win32/X11 application framework bundled with an IDE (BSD license)
- The Visual Component Framework (VCF) is an open source (BSD license) C++ framework project.
- wxWidgets (formerly wxWindows), open source (relaxed LGPL), abstracts toolkits across several platforms for C++, Python , Perl, Ruby and Haskell.
- YAAF, open source (YAAF Open Source License), designed to facilitate creating cross-platform applications.
- XForms, the Forms Library for X
- XVT, Extensible Virtual Toolkit
- Zinc Application Framework, cross-platform widget toolkit.
- VGScene is a suite of native Delphi/C++Builder/Lazarus components to develop rich applications for desktop like Adobe AIR or Microsoft WPF.
- IP Pascal uses a graphics library built on top of standard language constructs. Also unusual for being a procedural toolkit that is cross platform (no callbacks or other tricks), and is completely upward compatible with standard serial input and output paradigms. Completely standard programs with serial output can be run and extended with graphical constructs.
- Lazarus LCL (for Pascal, Object Pascal and Delphi programming language via Free Pascal compiler), a class library wrapping GTK+ 1.2, Gtk+ 2.x and the Windows API (Carbon, Windows CE and Qt4 support are all in development).
- fpGUI is created with the Free Pascal compiler. It doesn't rely on any large 3rdParty libraries and currently runs on Linux, Windows and Windows CE. A Carbon (Mac OS X) port is under way.
- RAPID is the Rapid Ada Portable Interface Design tool. Current implementations utilize the TASH binding to Tcl/Tk, the GNAT to JVM compiler, the Microsoft .NET framework, or GtkAda.
- GWindows is a GUI Framework that mostly supports Windows development, but also has incomplete implementations for Mac OS X and Linux.
Based on Objective CEdit
- EiffelVision is a cross-platform, object-oriented framework for graphical user interface development.
Not yet categorised Edit
|Toolkit||Initial release||Latest release||Main language||Bindings||Tools||License||Pros||Cons|
|Agar||C||BSD||portable, unique across platforms, fast, low-level||no property grid|
|Xaw / Athena||1983||C++|
|Clutter||2006||C||Perl, Python, C#, C++, Vala, Ruby||LGPL||GTK+ and WebKit embedding|
|EWL (Enlightenment Widget Library)||C/C++|
|FLTK||1998||C++||Python (pyFLTK)||FLUID (Fast Light UI Designer)||fast, small enough to static link||limited widget selection|
|FOX||1997||C++||Ruby (FXRuby), Python (FXPy), Eiffel (EiffelFox)||consistent across platforms||non-native look and feel|
|GTK+||1997||C||C++ (gtkmm), Perl (Gtk2-perl), Ruby (ruby-gtk2), Python (PyGTK), Haskell (Gtk2Hs), Java (java-gnome) (not available for Microsoft Windows), C# (Gtk#), PHP (PHP-GTK), Ada (GTKAda) others via GTK-server||Glade||LGPL||Portable, stable API, free licence|
|KWWidgets||C++||Tcl/Tk, Python||VisualStudio, gcc||BSD||portable|
|Motif / Lesstif||1980s||C|
|MWT Multi-Platform Widget Toolkit||2000-11-15||2009-10-20||C/C++||Ruby, Perl, Python, Java, Objective Caml||WideStudio Application Builder, Eclipse/NAB||MIT License||very portable, many language bindings (incl. embeded systems)|
|Qt||1991||C++||Ruby (QtRuby), Python (PyQt, PySide, PythonQt), Ada (QtAda), c# ( Qyoto), Java (Qt Jambi), Pascal ( FreePascal Qt4 ), Perl (Perl Qt4), PHP(PHP-Qt), Haskell (Qt Haskell), Lua (lqt, QtLua), Dao ( DaoQt), Tcl ( qtcl ), Common Lisp (CommonQt), D (QtD), Harbour (hbqt)||Qt Designer, Qt Creator||GPL, LGPL .||Portable, rich widget set, GUI builder, free licence, stable API|
|Swing||1996||Java||Eclipse, NetBeans||portable (java), advanced widgets, GUI builders|
|Tk||Tcl||Ruby (RubyTk), Python (Tkinter), Perl (Perl/Tk), Ada (TASH), CommonLisp (LTk), ... |||very portable, many language bindings||dated, no property grid widget|
|Ultimate++||2004||C++||TheIDE||BSD||portable, NTL, free license|
|Windows Forms||CLI languages||CLI languages||Expression, VisualStudio||portability issues, no MVC|
|WPF / XAML / Silverlight||././2007||CLI languages||CLI languages||Expression, VisualStudio||portability issues|
|MFC / WinAPI||1992 /||C++||VisualStudio||not portable|
|ATL / WTL||2004||C++||VisualStudio||not portable|
|NUI||C++||Yapuka||GPL and proprietary|
|tekUI||C / Lua|
|Toolkit||Initial release||Latest release||Main language||Bindings||Tools||License||Pros||Cons|
- The GUI Toolkit, Framework Page, comparing some of the modern GUIs out there.
- Survey of Widget sets (for the X Window System) (Edward Falk)
- GUI Toolkits for The X Window System (Leslie Polzer, freshmeat.net, 27 July 2003)
- Overview of Microsoft Windows GUI libraries