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Low-level widget toolkitsEdit

Integrated in the operating systemEdit

As a separate layer on top of the operating systemEdit

  • The X Window System contains primitive building blocks, called Xt or "Intrinsics", but they are used only by Motif and Xaw. Most other toolkits, such as GTK+ or Qt, bypass them and use Xlib.
  • The Amiga OS Intuition was formerly present in the Amiga Kickstart ROM and integrated itself with a medium-high level widget library which invoked the Workbench Amiga native GUI. Since Amiga OS 2.0, Intuition.library became disk based and object oriented. Also Workbench.library and Icon.library became disk based, and could be replaced with similar third-party solutions.

High-level widget toolkits Edit

On Amiga OSEdit

  • BOOPSI (Basic Object Oriented Programming System for Intuition) was introduced with OS 2.0 and enhanced Intuition with a system of classes in which every class represents a single widget or describes an interface event. This led to an evolution in which third-party developers each realised their own personal systems of classes.
  • Magic User Interface (MUI): system of Amiga Widget Classes.
  • Zune (GUI toolkit) is an object-oriented GUI toolkit which is part of the AROS project and nearly an Open Source clone, at both an API and look and feel level, of Magic User Interface.
  • ClassAct: another system of Amiga Widget Classes which evolved in AmigaOS 3.9 and 4.0 into Reaction based GUIs.
  • ReAction: Evolution of the ClassACT system.
  • Triton
  • BGUI
  • StormWIZARD: BOOPSI-based, developed by Thomas Mittelsdorf
  • Feelin: XML-based, developed by Olivier Laviale
  • Cygnix AmigaOS version of the X11 reduced engine Cygwin
  • ScalOS replacement for AmigaOS Workbench, has its own system of Widgets
  • GTK MUI wrapper which wraps GTK system of widgets with existing AmigaOS MUI toolkit for AROS and MorphOS
  • Cairo for AmigaOS 4.0

On MacintoshEdit

On Microsoft WindowsEdit

On Unix, under the X Window SystemEdit

Note that the X Window system was originally primarily for Unix-like operating systems, but it now runs on Microsoft Windows as well using, for example, Cygwin, so some or all of these toolkits can also be used under Windows.

Cross-platformEdit

Based on OpenGLEdit

  • GLUI is a GLUT-based C++ user interface library which provides controls such as buttons, checkboxes, radio buttons, and spinners to OpenGL applications.
  • Clutter is an open source software library for creating fast, visually rich and animated graphical user interfaces.
  • NUI is based on 3D rendered dynamic layouts. Build your visual interface as a composition of widgets and behaviors.

Based on FlashEdit

  • Adobe Flash allows creating widgets running in most web browsers and in several mobile phones.
  • Adobe Flex provides high level widgets for building web user interfaces. Flash widgets can be used in Flex.
  • Flash and Flex widgets will run without a browser in the Adobe AIR runtime environment.
  • The Free Software reimplementation of Flash, GNU Gnash, which is under development, can also run Flash widgets outside of a browser.
  • Independent software vendors propose to embed the flash application into an executable: MDM Zinc, mProjector and more. Those solutions are cross-platform (depending on the vendors solution).

Based on XMLEdit

Based on AJAXEdit

General

RIAs

Framework

Dynamic

Resource-based

Based on SVGEdit

  • airWRX is an application framework that runs from a USB flash drive, and turns its PC host and other nearby PCs into a multi-screen, web-like digital workspace.
  • SPARK (software) is an application framework built upon SVG.

Based on JavaEdit

  • The Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) is Sun Microsystems' original widget toolkit for Java applications. It typically uses another toolkit on each platform on which it runs.
  • Swing is a richer widget toolkit supported since J2SE 1.2 as a replacement for AWT widgets. Swing is a lightweight toolkit, meaning it does not rely on native widgets.
  • OpenSwing
  • The Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) is a native widget toolkit for Java that was developed as part of the Eclipse project. SWT uses a standard toolkit for the running platform (such as the Windows API or GTK+) underneath.
  • Qt Jambi, the official Java binding to Qt from Trolltech. The commercial support and development has stopped

Based on C or C++ (including bindings to other languages)Edit

Based on PascalEdit

  • VGScene is a suite of native Delphi/C++Builder/Lazarus components to develop rich applications for desktop like Adobe AIR or Microsoft WPF.
  • IP Pascal uses a graphics library built on top of standard language constructs. Also unusual for being a procedural toolkit that is cross platform (no callbacks or other tricks), and is completely upward compatible with standard serial input and output paradigms. Completely standard programs with serial output can be run and extended with graphical constructs.
  • Lazarus LCL (for Pascal, Object Pascal and Delphi programming language via Free Pascal compiler), a class library wrapping GTK+ 1.2, Gtk+ 2.x and the Windows API (Carbon, Windows CE and Qt4 support are all in development).
  • fpGUI is created with the Free Pascal compiler. It doesn't rely on any large 3rdParty libraries and currently runs on Linux, Windows and Windows CE. A Carbon (Mac OS X) port is under way.

Based on AdaEdit

  • RAPID is the Rapid Ada Portable Interface Design tool. Current implementations utilize the TASH binding to Tcl/Tk, the GNAT to JVM compiler, the Microsoft .NET framework, or GtkAda.
  • GWindows is a GUI Framework that mostly supports Windows development, but also has incomplete implementations for Mac OS X and Linux.

Based on CurlEdit

  • Curl is an integrated language intended to replace both HTML and a programming language such as Java or JavaScript. It is designed to yield faster performance due to using compilation. Non-commercial use is free.

Based on Objective CEdit

Based on EiffelEdit

  • EiffelVision is a cross-platform, object-oriented framework for graphical user interface development.

Not yet categorised Edit

Comparison Edit

Toolkit Initial release Latest release Main language Bindings Tools License Pros Cons
Agar C BSD portable, unique across platforms, fast, low-level no property grid
Xaw / Athena 1983 C++
AWT 1995 Java portable
Clutter 2006 C Perl, Python, C#, C++, Vala, Ruby LGPL GTK+ and WebKit embedding
EWL (Enlightenment Widget Library) C/C++
FLTK 1998 C++ Python (pyFLTK) FLUID (Fast Light UI Designer) fast, small enough to static link limited widget selection
FOX 1997 C++ Ruby (FXRuby), Python (FXPy), Eiffel (EiffelFox) consistent across platforms non-native look and feel
GLUI C++
GNUStep 1994 Objective-C
GTK+ 1997 C C++ (gtkmm), Perl (Gtk2-perl), Ruby (ruby-gtk2), Python (PyGTK), Haskell (Gtk2Hs), Java (java-gnome) (not available for Microsoft Windows), C# (Gtk#), PHP (PHP-GTK), Ada (GTKAda) others via GTK-server Glade LGPL Portable, stable API, free licence
KWWidgets C++ Tcl/Tk, Python VisualStudio, gcc BSD portable
Motif / Lesstif 1980s C
MWT Multi-Platform Widget Toolkit 2000-11-15 2009-10-20 C/C++ Ruby, Perl, Python, Java, Objective Caml WideStudio Application Builder, Eclipse/NAB MIT License very portable, many language bindings (incl. embeded systems)
Qt 1991 C++ Ruby (QtRuby), Python (PyQt, PySide, PythonQt), Ada (QtAda), c# ( Qyoto), Java (Qt Jambi), Pascal ( FreePascal Qt4 ), Perl (Perl Qt4), PHP(PHP-Qt), Haskell (Qt Haskell), Lua (lqt, QtLua), Dao ( DaoQt), Tcl ( qtcl ), Common Lisp (CommonQt), D (QtD), Harbour (hbqt) Qt Designer, Qt Creator GPL, LGPL . Portable, rich widget set, GUI builder, free licence, stable API
SWT Java D (DWT) Eclipse portable
Swing 1996 Java Eclipse, NetBeans portable (java), advanced widgets, GUI builders
Tk Tcl Ruby (RubyTk), Python (Tkinter), Perl (Perl/Tk), Ada (TASH), CommonLisp (LTk), ... | very portable, many language bindings dated, no property grid widget
Ultimate++ 2004 C++ TheIDE BSD portable, NTL, free license
Windows Forms CLI languages CLI languages Expression, VisualStudio portability issues, no MVC
WPF / XAML / Silverlight ././2007 CLI languages CLI languages Expression, VisualStudio portability issues
MFC / WinAPI 1992 / C++ VisualStudio not portable
ATL / WTL 2004 C++ VisualStudio not portable
wxWidgets 1992 C++ Ruby (wxRuby), Python (wxPython), Perl (wxPerl), Java (wx4j), Lua (wxLua), JavaScript (wxJavaScript), Smalltalk (wxSqueak), Erlang (wxErlang), Haskell (wxHaskell), ... VisualWx, Boa Constructor, PythonCard, Spe, XRCed, wxGlade, wxFormBuilder, DialogBlocks ($), wxDesigner ($) Semantic similarities to MFC make migration easy.
XUL XML/JavaScript portable
YAAF C++
SmartWin++ C++
Juce 2004 C++ Jucer
XVT 1989 C++
NUI C++ Yapuka GPL and proprietary
CLX C++
InterViews C++
VCL Delphi
tekUI C / Lua
Toolkit Initial release Latest release Main language Bindings Tools License Pros Cons

External linksEdit

Template:Widget toolkits

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